Symmetric dimethylarginine, high-density lipoproteins, and cardiovascular risk assessment: are we ready for clinical use?

Arduino A. Mangoni, Angelo Zinellu, Salvatore Sotgia, Ciriaco Carru


There is very good evidence that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), particularly those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), have an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality when compared with the general population (1).