Can urinary exosomal micro-RNA detection become a diagnostic and prognostic gold standard for patients with lupus nephritis and diabetic nephropathy?
In 1993, Lee et al. (1) observed that lin-4 gene could control the embryonic development of C. elegans, but failed to encode a protein molecule. Besides, the gene transcribes a pair of microRNAs (miRNAs). The short RNA is approximately 22 nucleotides (nt) in length whereas the long one is 61 nt that was predicted to fold a stem loop with anti-sense complementary to 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of lin-14 messenger RNA (mRNA) (2).