More microRNAs as biomarkers and hope for precision medicine in kidney diseases

Mitsuo Kato


microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are very short (20–25 nucleotides) single stranded noncoding RNAs which have the complementary to the 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and induce the degradation of target RNAs and inhibit the protein translation (1-3). Those tiny RNAs are playing critical roles in physiological, developmental and pathological conditions and in variety of the human diseases and can be useful as biomarkers for human diseases because of their stable existence in body fluids such as blood and urine (4,5).