Epigenetic biomarkers in cardiovascular disease

Alejandro Cardona-Monzonís, Jesús Beltrán-García, José Santiago Ibañez-Cabellos, Gisselle Pérez-Machado, Kabir Malkani, Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Salvador Mena-Mollá, José Luis García-Giménez


In recent years we have lived a technological revolution that has made it possible to decipher the human genome. However, most diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), are not simply due only to genetic alteration but also to epigenetic events conditioned by environmental inputs and lifestyle. Epigenetics explains the ability to modulate gene expression without altering the genetic sequence. Epigenetic biomarkers are revolutionizing precision medicine and improving the capacity of diagnosing and prognosticating CVDs and predicting the risk of future comorbidities. This review presents a list of the most reliable epigenetic biomarkers (i.e., based on DNA methylation, circulating histones and circulating miRNAs) which will probably improve the diagnostic and prognostic of several CVD conditions, such as coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure (HF).