Circulating biomarkers in heart failure: diagnostic and prognostic importance
Various biological markers are investigated as diagnostic and risk stratification tools for heart failure (HF). However, there is a large body of evidence that natriuretic peptides (NPs), solubilized ST2, galectin-3 and cardiac troponins have been demonstrated a significant relevance to HF advance and mortality rate. Because there is not only ideal biomarker current strategy of biomarker use in HF based on multiple biomarkers’ implementation to improve risk stratification and predict risk HF-related death. Consequently, understanding the mechanisms by which the biomarkers reflect several pathophysiological stages of HF is crucial for awareness of optimal personified therapy of different phenotypes of HF. Indeed, personalized risk prediction and nature evolution of HF based on biomarkers’ measure in HF patients remains to be challenged. The chapter is depicted the current role and future challenging of biological markers for evolution of HF development and progression. It has discussed the clinical guidelines reported by scientific societies with high levels of scientific reputation regarding HF therapies based on single and serial measurements of biological markers.