Prognostic value of Sjögren’s syndrome autoantibodies
Sjögren’s syndrome is in part considered an autoimmune disease because patient sera contain antibodies binding self-structures. In fact, in addition to anti-Ro (or SSA) and anti-La (or SSB), which are included in the classification criteria, there are a wide variety of autoantibodies found among these patients. We reviewed English-language MEDLINE sources. Anti-Ro and anti-La found among healthy individuals, including mothers giving birth to infants with neonatal lupus, predicts future connective tissue disease. Those with Sjögren’s syndrome can be divided into two groups; patients with only exocrine gland involvement and those with systemic disease. The presence of anti-Ro/La is associated with systemic, extraglandular disease. Rheumatoid factor is also associated with extraglandular disease while anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) is likely associated with inflammatory arthritis and progression to rheumatoid arthritis. Anti-mitochondrial antibodies are uncommon but predict progression to primary biliary cirrhosis. Cryoglobulinemia is found in excess among those with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Determination of autoantibodies on the sera of Sjögren’s syndrome patients has prognostic implications for Sjögren’s syndrome itself as well as associated diseases.